Sunday, February 10, 2019

Niemann-Pick type C

Pineda M, Juríčková K, Karimzadeh P, Kolnikova M, Malinova V, Insua JL, Velten C, Kolb SA. Disease characteristics, prognosis and miglustat treatment effects on disease progression in patients with Niemann-Pick disease Type C: an international, multicenter, retrospective chart review. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2019 Feb 7;14(1):32.

Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NP-C) is a lysosomal lipid storage disorder characterized by progressive neurodegenerative symptomatology. The signs and symptoms of NP-C vary with age at disease onset, and available therapies are directed at alleviating symptoms and stabilizing disease progression. We report the characteristics and factors related to disease progression, and analyze the effect of miglustat treatment on disease progression and patient survival using NP-C disability scales.

This retrospective, observational chart review included patients with NP-C from five expert NP-C centers. Patient disability scores were recorded using three published NP-C disability scales, and a unified disability scale was developed to allow comparison of data from each scale. Disease progression was represented by scores on the unified NP-C disability scale. Patients were stratified as infantile (< 4 years), juvenile (≥ 4 - < 16 years), and adult (≥ 16 years) based on age at diagnosis, and treated ≥1 year and non-treated/treated < 1 year based on the duration of miglustat treatment.

The analysis included 63 patients; the majority (61.9%) were on miglustat therapy for ≥1 year. Ataxia and clumsiness/frequent fall were the most common neurologic symptoms across age groups, whereas, hypotonia and delayed developmental milestones were specific to infantile patients. In both infantile and juvenile patients, visceral signs preceded diagnosis and neurologic signs were noted at or shortly after diagnosis. Adult patients presented with a range of visceral, neurologic, and psychiatric signs in years preceding diagnosis. Patients on miglustat therapy for ≥1 year had a lower mean annual disease progression compared with those untreated/treated < 1 year (1.32 vs 3.54 points/year). A significant reduction in annual disease progression in infantile patients, and a trend towards reduced disease progression in juvenile patients after ≥1 year of miglustat treatment, translated into higher age at last contact or death in these groups.

The type and onset of symptoms varied across age groups and were consistent with descriptions of NP-C within the literature. Miglustat treatment was associated with a reduced rate of disability score worsening in infantile and juvenile patients, both in agreement with increased age at last contact.

Kumagai T, Terashima H, Uchida H, Fukuda A, Kasahara M, Kosuga M, Okuyama T, Tsunoda T, Inui A, Fujisawa T, Narita A, Eto Y, Kubota M. A case of Niemann-Pick disease type C with neonatal liver failure initially diagnosed as neonatal hemochromatosis. Brain Dev. 2019 Feb 5. pii: S0387-7604(18)30480-7. doi:10.1016/j.braindev.2019.01.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is a lysosomal lipid storage disease with mutation of NPC1/NPC2 genes, which transport lipids in the endosome and lysosome, and various neurological symptoms. NPC patients also develop hepatosplenomegaly or liver disorder in the neonatal period, and 10% suffer severe liver failure. Neonatal hemochromatosis (NH) is a liver disorder characterized by hepatic and extrahepatic siderosis. Although the etiology of NH is unclear, recent reports suggest that the gestational alloimmune mechanism is the cause of NH. Herein, we report a Japanese NPC patient initially diagnosed as NH.

A 5-day-old boy was transferred to our hospital with severe cholestatic liver failure. Congenital infections and metabolic screening were negative, and NH was suspected. However intra and extrahepatic siderosis were not found. As his liver deteriorated rapidly, liver transplantation was performed at 19 days old. The explanted liver showed cirrhosis, and strong C5b-9 complex staining of hepatocytes, so NH was diagnosed. From the age of one and a half years, he developed regression, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and cataplexy. Fibroblast filipin staining was strong, blood oxysterol was high, and there were compound heterozygous mutations in NPC1,p.[(F288L)];[(K1206N)]. The patient was then diagnosed as NPC and started on miglustat.

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