Inspired by a patient
Baladron B, Mielu LM, López-Martín E, Barrero MJ, Lopez L, Alvarado JI, Monzón S, Varona S, Cuesta I, Cazorla R, Lara J, Iglesias G, Román E, Ros P, Gomez-Mariano G, Cubillo I, Miguel EH, Rivera D, Alonso J, Bermejo-Sánchez E, Posada M, Martínez-Delgado B. Differences in Expression of IQSEC2 Transcript Isoforms in Male and Female Cases with Loss of Function Variants and Neurodevelopmental Disorder. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Aug 22;23(16):9480. doi: 10.3390/ijms23169480. PMID: 36012761; PMCID: PMC9409358.
Pathogenic hemizygous or heterozygous mutations in the IQSEC2 gene cause X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-1 (XLID1), characterized by a variable phenotype including developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy, hypotonia, autism, microcephaly and stereotypies. It affects both males and females typically through loss of function in males and haploinsufficiency in heterozygous females. Females are generally less affected than males. Two novel unrelated cases, one male and one female, with de novo IQSEC2 variants were detected by trio-based whole exome sequencing. The female case had a previously undescribed frameshift mutation (NM_001111125:c.3300dup; p.Met1101Tyrfs*5), and the male showed an intronic variant in intron 6, with a previously unknown effect (NM_001111125:c.2459+21C>T). IQSEC2 gene expression study revealed that this intronic variant created an alternative donor splicing site and an aberrant product, with the inclusion of 19bp, confirming the pathogenic effect of the intron variant. Moreover, a strong reduction in the expression of the long, but also the short IQSEC2 isoforms, was detected in the male correlating with a more severe phenotype, while the female case showed no decreased expression of the short isoform, and milder effects of the disease. This suggests that the abnormal expression levels of the different IQSEC2 transcripts could be implicated in the severity of disease manifestations.
Brant B, Stern T, Shekhidem HA, Mizrahi L, Rosh I, Stern Y, Ofer P, Asleh A, Umanah GKE, Jada R, Levy NS, Levy AP, Stern S. IQSEC2 mutation associated with epilepsy, intellectual disability, and autism results in hyperexcitability of patient-derived neurons and deficient synaptic transmission. Mol Psychiatry. 2021 Dec;26(12):7498-7508. doi: 10.1038/s41380-021-01281-0. Epub 2021 Sep 17. PMID: 34535765; PMCID: PMC8873005.
Mutations in the IQSEC2 gene are associated with drug-resistant, multifocal infantile and childhood epilepsy; autism; and severe intellectual disability (ID). We used induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology to obtain hippocampal neurons to investigate the neuropathology of IQSEC2-mediated disease. The neurons were characterized at three-time points during differentiation to assess developmental progression. We showed that immature IQSEC2 mutant dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons were extremely hyperexcitable, exhibiting increased sodium and potassium currents compared to those of CRISPR-Cas9-corrected isogenic controls, and displayed dysregulation of genes involved in differentiation and development. Immature IQSEC2 mutant cultured neurons exhibited a marked reduction in the number of inhibitory neurons, which contributed further to hyperexcitability. As the mutant neurons aged, they became hypoexcitable, exhibiting reduced sodium and potassium currents and a reduction in the rate of synaptic and network activity, and showed dysregulation of genes involved in synaptic transmission and neuronal differentiation. Mature IQSEC2 mutant neurons were less viable than wild-type mature neurons and had reduced expression of surface AMPA receptors. Our studies provide mechanistic insights into severe infantile epilepsy and neurodevelopmental delay associated with this mutation and present a human model for studying IQSEC2 mutations in vitro.
Levy AP, Levy NS, Heyman E, Schertz M, Genizi J. Reduction in seizure burden in a child with a A350V IQSEC2 mutation using heat therapy with a Jacuzzi. Clin Case Rep. 2021 Aug 30;9(9):e04734. doi: 10.1002/ccr3.4734. PMID: 34484768; PMCID: PMC8405536.
A child with a A350V IQSEC2 missense mutation resulting in drug-resistant epilepsy stops having seizures when he has a fever. We demonstrate that raising the body temperature of the child using a commercial Jacuzzi dramatically reduces his seizures and appears to improve his social behavioral interactions.
Liu X, Zhang S, Wan L, Zhang X, Wang H, Zhang H, Zhu G, Liang Y, Yan H, Zhang B, Yang G. IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in male children: Novel mutations and phenotypes. Front Mol Neurosci. 2022 Oct 3;15:984776. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2022.984776. PMID: 36267700; PMCID: PMC9577604.
The isoleucine-glutamine (IQ) motif and Sec7 domain-containing protein 2 (IQSEC2) gene, located at Xp11. 2, are associated with nervous system diseases, such as epilepsy, autism, and intellectual disabilities. Gender-related differences in the severity of phenotype severity have been described previously. Here, we report the details of seven male children with IQSEC2 mutations from different families. During this investigation, we explored the relationship between the genotype and phenotype of IQSEC2 mutations; to do so, we recruited seven children with pathogenic/likely pathogenic IQSEC2 mutations who were diagnosed with global developmental delay and/or epilepsy. Their clinical features were assessed, and Trio-based whole-exome sequencing (trio WES) was conducted in seven pedigrees. A variety of algorithms and computational tools were used to calculate the pathogenicity, protein stability, conservation, side chain properties, and protein-protein interactions of mutated proteins. The seven patients ranged in age from 18 months to 5 years. Among them, six children were found to have both developmental delay and epilepsy, and one child only exhibited developmental delay. Four novel mutations (c.316C > T, c.443_4 44dup, c.3235T > C, and c.1417G > T) were newly reported. Two patients did not have truncated aberrant proteins caused by missense mutations. Still, they did have severe phenotypes, such as early-onset epilepsy in infancy, because the mutations were located in domains like the pleckstrin homology and IQ calmodulin-binding motif domains. The bioinformatics analysis also proved that missense mutations may be located in the functional region, which affects protein stability and is harmful. In summary, severe phenotypes, such as early-onset epilepsy in infancy, occur in male patients with a missense mutation in specific domains (e.g., pleckstrin homology and IQ calmodulin-binding motif domains). Some female individuals with IQSEC2 mutations may be asymptomatic because of the skewed inactivation of the X chromosome.