Randell RL, Adams AV, Van Mater H. Tocilizumab in Refractory Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Series of Pediatric Cases. Pediatr Neurol. 2018 Sep;86:66-68.
Autoimmune encephalitis can result in significant neurological and psychiatric morbidity and mortality in patients of all ages and often does not respond to standard therapies. Recent reports suggest efficacy of tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody against interleukin 6, in refractory autoimmune encephalitis.
We describe three children with refractory autoimmune encephalitis who experienced a robust, immediate clinical response following treatment with tocilizumab.
These findings support the efficacy and short-term safety of tocilizumab as a third-line treatment for refractory autoimmune encephalitis in children.
Breu M, Glatter S, Höftberger R, Freilinger M, Kircher K, Kasprian G, Seidl R, Kornek B. Two Cases of Pediatric AQP4-Antibody Positive Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Successfully Treated with Tocilizumab. Neuropediatrics. 2019 Jun;50(3):193-196.
B cell depletion with the anti-CD20-antibody rituximab is widely considered treatment of choice for long-term immunotherapy in aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-antibody positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, up to 30% of patients suffer from relapses despite complete B cell depletion. In these cases, the IL6 (interleukin-6)-receptor blocking antibody tocilizumab has been suggested as an alternative. We report two female adolescents with AQP4-antibody positive NMOSD who relapsed under rituximab treatment and clinically stabilized after switching to monthly administrations of tocilizumab. Our data suggest that early escalation of therapy with tocilizumab may lead to stabilization of disease activity in pediatric NMOSD patients who relapse under B cell depletion.