Cheng B, Zhu J, Yang T, et al. Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of gastrointestinal comorbidity and exacerbates core symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 30]. Pediatr Res. 2020;10.1038/s41390-020-0865-y. doi:10.1038/s41390-020-0865-y
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, and many individuals with ASD have gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities. Vitamin A (VA) is an essential micronutrient that plays an important role in brain development and GI function.
Methods: A total of 323 children with ASD and 180 control children were enrolled in this study. Symptoms of ASD were assessed with the Child Autism Rating Scale (CARS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). Caregivers of the children completed questionnaires about GI symptoms. Serum retinol levels were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Results: Children with ASD and with GI comorbidity and constipation had considerably lower serum VA levels than autistic children without these symptoms. VA level was associated with CARS, SRS, and ABC scores, whereas GI symptoms were associated some SRS and ABC scores. The interaction of VAD and GI symptoms appeared to aggravate some of the core symptoms of children with ASD.
Conclusions: VAD exacerbates core symptoms in children with ASD, and ASD children with GI comorbidities also have more serious core symptoms than ASD children without GI comorbidities. VAD comorbid with GI symptoms aggravates autistic children's core symptoms.
Impact: VAD exacerbates core symptoms in children with ASD.ASD children with GI comorbidities have more serious core symptoms than ASD children without GI comorbidities.VAD comorbid with GI symptoms aggravates autistic children's core symptoms.We speculate that VAD might be related to a subtype of ASD that involves GI comorbidities.We believe that our findings will be of fundamental importance to the scientific community.
Courtesy of: https://www.mdlinx.com/journal-summaries/autism-spectrum-disorders-asd-autism-spectrum/2020/03/31/7635687?spec=neurology
Guo M, Zhu J, Yang T, et al. Vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies exacerbate symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nutr Neurosci. 2019;22(9):637–647. doi:10.1080/1028415X.2017.1423268
Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the vitamin A (VA) and vitamin D (VD) levels in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to determine whether co-deficiency of VA and VD exacerbates clinical symptoms in autistic children.
Methods: The Autism Behavior Checklist, Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were used to assess the symptoms of 332 children diagnosed as ASD. And the Gesell Developmental Scale (GDS) was used to evaluate neurodevelopment in children with ASD. Anthropometric measurement and questionnaire results were compared for all autistic children and 197 age- and gender-matched control children. Serum retinol levels were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography, and serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D were measured with an immunoassay method in the two groups.
Results: The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA of the children with ASD were significantly lower than those of the control children. Furthermore, higher proportions of children with picky eating, resistance to new foods, and eating problems were observed in the ASD group when compared with the control group. Serum retinol and 25-OH vitamin D levels in autistic children were significantly lower than those in the control children. Additionally, VA and VD co-deficiency impacts more on the symptoms and development in autistic children.
Conclusions: We found that children with autism have more VA and VD deficiencies than control children, and VA and VD co-deficiency may exacerbate the symptoms of children with ASD.