Monday, October 26, 2020

Levetiracetam for convulsive status epilepticus in childhood

Abdelgadir I, Hamud A, Kadri A, Akram S, Pullattayi A, Akobeng AK, Powell C. Levetiracetam for convulsive status epilepticus in childhood: systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Oct 15:archdischild-2020-319573. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-319573. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33060105. 


Importance: Prolonged seizures are life-threatening emergencies associated with significant morbidity. 

Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam in treating convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) in childhood. 

Data sources and study selections: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched from inception up to April 2020. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that included children aged 1 month-18 years were assessed. Two reviewers performed data assessment and extraction. 

Data extraction and synthesis: Ten studies out of the 20 637 citations identified were included. 

Main outcomes: Cessation of seizure activities, time to cessation of seizure activities, need for rapid sequence intubation (RSI), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, recurrence of seizures at 24 hours, adverse events and all-cause mortality. 

Results: We included 10 RCTs (n=1907). There was no significant difference in cessation of seizure activities when levetiracetam was compared with phenytoin (risk ratio (RR)=1.03, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.09), levetiracetam to fosphenytoin (RR=1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.35) or levetiracetam to valproate (RR=1.10, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.27). No differences were found in relation to the timing of cessation of seizures for levetiracetam versus phenytoin (mean difference (MD)=-0.45, 95% CI -1.83 to 0.93), or levetiracetam versus fosphenytoin (MD=-0.70, 95% CI -4.26 to 2.86). There were no significant differences with regard to ICU admissions, adverse events, recurrence of seizure at 24 hours, RSI and all-cause mortality. 

Conclusion: Levetiracetam is comparable to phenytoin, fosphenytoin and valproate as a second line treatment of paediatric CSE. 

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