Pérez-Vigil A, Fernández de la Cruz L, Brander G, Isomura K, Jangmo A, Kuja-Halkola R, Hesselmark E, D'Onofrio BM, Larsson H, Mataix-Cols D. Association of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders With Objective Indicators of Educational Attainment: A Population-Based Sibling Comparison Study. JAMA Neurol.2018 Sep 1;75(9):1098-1105.
The influence of Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders on academic performance has not been objectively quantified.
To investigate the association of Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders with objectively measured educational outcomes, adjusting for measured covariates and unmeasured factors shared between siblings and taking common psychiatric comorbidities into account.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
A population-based birth cohort consisting of all individuals born in Sweden from 1976 to 1998 was followed up until December 2013. Individuals with organic brain disorders, mental retardation, and 2 foreign-born parents were excluded. We further identified families with at least 2 singleton full siblings and families with siblings discordant for Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorders.
Previously validated International Classification of Diseases diagnoses of Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorders in the Swedish National Patient Register.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:
Eligibility to access upper secondary school after compulsory education, finishing upper secondary school, starting a university degree, and finishing a university degree.
Of the 2 115 554 individuals in the cohort, 3590 had registered a diagnosis of Tourette syndrome or a chronic tic disorder in specialist care (of whom 2822 [78.6%] were male; median [interquartile] age at first diagnosis, 14.0 [11-18] years). Of 726 198 families with at least 2 singleton full siblings, 2697 included siblings discordant for these disorders. Compared with unexposed individuals, people with Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorders were significantly less likely to pass all core and additional courses at the end of compulsory school (odds ratios ranging from 0.23 [95% CI, 0.20-0.26] for the handcraft textile/wood course to 0.36 [95% CI, 0.31-0.41] for the English language course) and to access a vocational program (adjusted OR [aOR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.28-0.34) or academic program (aOR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.39-0.47) in upper secondary education. Individuals with the disorders were also less likely to finish upper secondary education (aOR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.32-0.37), start a university degree (aOR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.37-0.46), and finish a university degree (aOR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.32-0.48). The results were only marginally attenuated in the fully adjusted sibling comparison models. Exclusion of patients with neuropsychiatric comorbidities, particularly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and pervasive developmental disorders, resulted in attenuated estimates, but patients with Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorders were still significantly impaired across all outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:
Help-seeking individuals with Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorders seen in specialist settings experience substantial academic underachievement across all educational levels, spanning from compulsory school to university, even after accounting for multiple confounding factors and psychiatric comorbidities.
Courtesy of: https://www.mdlinx.com/journal-summaries/tourette-syndrome-chronic-tic-disorders-attention/2018/10/08/7546149?spec=neurology
Carulla-Roig M, Isomura K, Pérez-Vigil A, Larsson H, Hellner C, Mataix-Cols D, Fernández de la Cruz L. Pharmacoepidemiology of Tourette and Chronic Tic Disorders in Sweden 2005-2013. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2018 Jun 5. doi:10.1089/cap.2017.0169. [Epub ahead of print]
Monitoring "real world" dispensation patterns over time is important to build the evidence base for safe and efficient use of psychotropic drugs. In this study, we aimed to comprehensively examine the patterns of psychotropic drug dispensations in patients with Tourette and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD) in Sweden between 2005 and 2013.
A cohort of 6979 TD/CTD patients was identified through the Swedish National Patient Register. Their drug dispensation patterns, collected in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, were examined between July 1, 2005 and December 31, 2013. Frequencies of drug dispensations were further stratified by gender and comorbidities. Additionally, differences in the patterns of dispensation in children and adolescents versus adults in the last year of the follow-up were examined, as well as the time trends of the dispensations over the 8-year study period.
A total of 5299 (75.9%) TD/CTD patients were dispensed at least one drug during the study period. The most frequently dispensed medications were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs (53.8%), antidepressants (50.7%), hypnotics/sedatives (41.7%), and antipsychotics (41.5%). Most of the medicated patients (72.1%) were dispensed more than one drug during the study period. Patterns of dispensation varied according to patient's gender, associated comorbidities, and age group. Dispensation of quetiapine and aripiprazole, antiadrenergics, ADHD drugs, antiepileptics, and hypnotics/sedatives and anxiolytics (particularly the nonbenzodiazepine types) significantly increased over time, whereas dispensation of antidepressants, typical antipsychotics, and benzodiazepine-based anxiolytics significantly decreased over the study period.
Long-term monitoring of these drug dispensation patterns and the study of both their beneficial and adverse effects is warranted.