Vasquez A, Gaínza-Lein M, Sánchez Fernández I, Abend NS, Anderson A, Brenton JN, Carpenter JL, Chapman K, Clark J, Gaillard WD, Glauser T, Goldstein J, Goodkin HP, Lai YC, Loddenkemper T, McDonough TL, Mikati MA, Nayak A, Payne E, Riviello J, Tchapyjnikov D, Topjian AA, Wainwright MS, Tasker RC; Pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group (pSERG). Hospital Emergency Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus: Comparison of Pathways From Ten Pediatric Research Centers. Pediatr Neurol. 2018 Sep;86:33-41.
We aimed to evaluate and compare the status epilepticus treatment pathways used by pediatric status epilepticus research group (pSERG) hospitals in the United States and the American Epilepsy Society (AES) status epilepticus guideline.
We undertook a descriptive analysis of recommended timing, dosing, and medication choices in 10 pSERG hospitals' status epilepticus treatment pathways.
One pathway matched the timeline in the AES guideline; nine pathways described more rapid timings. All pathways matched the guideline's stabilization phase in timing and five suggested that first-line benzodiazepine (BZD) be administered within this period. For second-line therapy timing (initiation of a non-BZD antiepileptic drug within 20 to 40 minutes), one pathway matched the guideline; nine initiated the antiepileptic drug earlier (median 10 [range five to 15] minutes). Third-line therapy timings matched the AES guideline (40 minutes) in two pathways; eight suggested earlier timing (median 20 [range 15 to 30] minutes). The first-line BZD recommended in all hospitals was intravenous lorazepam; alternatives included intramuscular midazolam or rectal diazepam. In second-line therapy, nine pathways recommended fosphenytoin. For third-line therapy, eight pathways recommended additional boluses of second-line medications; most commonly phenobarbital. Two pathways suggested escalation to third-line medication; most commonly midazolam. We found variance in dosing for the following medications: midazolam as first-line therapy, fosphenytoin, and levetiracetam as second-line therapy, and phenobarbital as third-line therapy medications.
The pSERG hospitals status epilepticus pathways are consistent with the AES status epilepticus guideline in regard to the choice of medications, but generally recommend more rapid escalation in therapy than the guideline.