Grünert SC, Rosenbaum-Fabian S, Schumann A, Schwab KO, Mingirulli N, Spiekerkoetter U. Successful pregnancy in maple syrup urine disease: a case report and review of the literature. Nutr J. 2018 May 12;17(1):51
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Patients with MSUD are at risk of life-threatening metabolic decompensations with ketoacidosis and encephalopathy. These episodes are often triggered by physiological stress. Only few cases of pregnancies in MSUD mothers have been reported so far.
We present the favorable outcome of a pregnancy in a woman with classical MSUD. She presented in the metabolic outpatient clinic in week 7 of gestation. Branched-chain amino acid concentrations were measured at least weekly to adjust dietary leucine intake. Despite excellent compliance, leucine concentrations frequently exceeded the target value of < 300 μmol/L during the first trimester. From the second trimester until delivery, protein and leucine intake increased continuously to about threefold compared to pre-pregnancy values. To maximize patient safety during delivery and the postpartum period, a detailed plan including peripartal infusion therapy, dietary recommendations and monitoring parameters was developed. Primary Caesarean section was performed in week 38 of gestation, and the patient gave birth to a healthy girl. Lactation was successfully implemented. Leucine levels were maintained within the target range throughout the complete postpartum period. In addition to our case, we give an overview about all cases of pregnancies in MSUD mothers published so far.
Management of pregnancy, delivery, postpartum period and lactation may be challenging in patients with MSUD. Careful monitoring and interdisciplinary collaboration is essential to minimize the risk of metabolic crisis, especially after delivery.