Monday, October 25, 2021

MED13L-related intellectual disability

Inspired by a patient

Smol T, Petit F, Piton A, Keren B, Sanlaville D, Afenjar A, Baker S, Bedoukian EC, Bhoj EJ, Bonneau D, Boudry-Labis E, Bouquillon S, Boute-Benejean O, Caumes R, Chatron N, Colson C, Coubes C, Coutton C, Devillard F, Dieux-Coeslier A, Doco-Fenzy M, Ewans LJ, Faivre L, Fassi E, Field M, Fournier C, Francannet C, Genevieve D, Giurgea I, Goldenberg A, Green AK, Guerrot AM, Heron D, Isidor B, Keena BA, Krock BL, Kuentz P, Lapi E, Le Meur N, Lesca G, Li D, Marey I, Mignot C, Nava C, Nesbitt A, Nicolas G, Roche-Lestienne C, Roscioli T, Satre V, Santani A, Stefanova M, Steinwall Larsen S, Saugier-Veber P, Picker-Minh S, Thuillier C, Verloes A, Vieville G, Wenzel M, Willems M, Whalen S, Zarate YA, Ziegler A, Manouvrier-Hanu S, Kalscheuer VM, Gerard B, Ghoumid J. MED13L-related intellectual disability: involvement of missense variants and delineation of the phenotype. Neurogenetics. 2018 May;19(2):93-103. doi: 10.1007/s10048-018-0541-0. Epub 2018 Mar 6. PMID: 29511999. 


Molecular anomalies in MED13L, leading to haploinsufficiency, have been reported in patients with moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID) and distinct facial features, with or without congenital heart defects. Phenotype of the patients was referred to "MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome." Missense variants in MED13L were already previously described to cause the MED13L-related syndrome, but only in a limited number of patients. Here we report 36 patients with MED13L molecular anomaly, recruited through an international collaboration between centers of expertise for developmental anomalies. All patients presented with intellectual disability and severe language impairment. Hypotonia, ataxia, and recognizable facial gestalt were frequent findings, but not congenital heart defects. We identified seven de novo missense variations, in addition to protein-truncating variants and intragenic deletions. Missense variants clustered in two mutation hot-spots, i.e., exons 15-17 and 25-31. We found that patients carrying missense mutations had more frequently epilepsy and showed a more severe phenotype. This study ascertains missense variations in MED13L as a cause for MED13L-related intellectual disability and improves the clinical delineation of the condition. 

Tørring PM, Larsen MJ, Brasch-Andersen C, Krogh LN, Kibæk M, Laulund L, Illum N, Dunkhase-Heinl U, Wiesener A, Popp B, Marangi G, Hjortshøj TD, Ek J, Vogel I, Becher N, Roos L, Zollino M, Fagerberg CR. Is MED13L-related intellectual disability a recognizable syndrome? Eur J Med Genet. 2019 Feb;62(2):129-136. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.06.014. Epub 2018 Jun 27. PMID: 29959045. 


Introduction: MED13L-related intellectual disability is characterized by moderate intellectual disability (ID), speech impairment, and dysmorphic facial features. We present 8 patients with MED13L-related intellectual disability and review the literature for phenotypical and genetic aspects of previously described patients. 

Materials and methods: In the search for genetic aberrations in individuals with ID, two of the patients were identified by chromosomal microarray analysis, and five by exome sequencing. One of the individuals, suspected of MED13L-related intellectual disability, based on clinical features, was identified by Sanger sequencing. 

Results: All 8 individuals had de novo MED13L aberrations, including two intragenic microdeletions, two frameshift, three nonsense variants, and one missense variant. Phenotypically, they all had intellectual disability, speech and motor delay, and features of the mouth (open mouth appearance, macroglossia, and/or macrostomia). Two individuals were diagnosed with autism, and one had autistic features. One had complex congenital heart defect, and one had persistent foramen ovale. The literature was reviewed with respect to clinical and dysmorphic features, and genetic aberrations. 

Conclusions: Even if most clinical features of MED13L-related intellectual disability are rather non-specific, the syndrome may be suspected in some individuals based on the association of developmental delay, speech impairment, bulbous nasal tip, and macroglossia, macrostomia, or open mouth appearance. 

Yi Z, Zhang Y, Song Z, Pan H, Yang C, Li F, Xue J, Qu Z. Report of a de novo c.2605C > T (p.Pro869Ser) change in the MED13L gene and review of the literature for MED13L-related intellectual disability. Ital J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 9;46(1):95. doi: 10.1186/s13052-020-00847-y. PMID: 32646507; PMCID: PMC7350599. 


Background: MED13L-related intellectual disability is a new syndrome that is characterized by intellectual disability (ID), motor developmental delay, speech impairment, hypotonia and facial dysmorphism. Both the MED13L haploinsufficiency mutation and missense mutation were reported to be causative. It has also been reported that patients carrying missense mutations have more frequent epilepsy and show a more severe phenotype. 

Case presentation: We report a child with ID, speech impairment, severe motor developmental delay, facial deformity, hypotonia, muscular atrophy, scoliosis, odontoprisis, abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG), and congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) combined with high ureter attachment. We used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to detect the genetic aberration of the child and found a de novo mutation, c.2605C > T (p.Pro869Ser), in the MED13L gene. Neither of her parents carried the mutation. Additionally, we review the literature and summarize the phenotypes and features of reported missense mutations. After reviewing the literature, approximately 17 missense mutations in 20 patients have been reported thus far. For 18 patients (including our case) whose clinical manifestations were provided, 100% of the patients had ID or developmental delay (DD). A total of 88.9, 83.3 and 66.7% of the patients had speech impairment, delayed milestones and hypotonia, respectively. A total of 83.3% of the patients exhibited craniofacial deformity or other dysmorphic features. Behavioral difficulties and autistic features were observed in 55.6% of the patients. Cardiac anomalies were seen in only 27.8% of the patients. Of these patients, 44.4% had epileptic seizures. Of the 17 mutations, 2 were located in the N-terminal domain, 8 were located in the C-terminal domain, and 1 was located in an α-helical sequence stretch. One of them was located in the MID domain of the MedPIWI module. 

Conclusions: We report a new patient with a reported missense mutation, c.2605C > T (p.Pro869Ser), who exhibited some infrequent manifestations except common phenotypes, which may broaden the known clinical spectrum. Additionally, by reviewing the literature, we also found that patients with missense mutations have a higher incidence of seizures, MRI abnormalities, autistic features and cardiac anomalies. They also have more severe ID and hypotonia. Our case further demonstrates that Pro869Ser is a hotspot mutation of the MED13L gene. 

Snijders Blok L, Hiatt SM, Bowling KM, Prokop JW, Engel KL, Cochran JN, Bebin EM, Bijlsma EK, Ruivenkamp CAL, Terhal P, Simon MEH, Smith R, Hurst JA; DDD study, McLaughlin H, Person R, Crunk A, Wangler MF, Streff H, Symonds JD, Zuberi SM, Elliott KS, Sanders VR, Masunga A, Hopkin RJ, Dubbs HA, Ortiz-Gonzalez XR, Pfundt R, Brunner HG, Fisher SE, Kleefstra T, Cooper GM. De novo mutations in MED13, a component of the Mediator complex, are associated with a novel neurodevelopmental disorder. Hum Genet. 2018 May;137(5):375-388. doi: 10.1007/s00439-018-1887-y. Epub 2018 May 8. PMID: 29740699; PMCID: PMC5973976. 


Many genetic causes of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD/ID) are extremely rare, and robust discovery of these requires both large-scale DNA sequencing and data sharing. Here we describe a GeneMatcher collaboration which led to a cohort of 13 affected individuals harboring protein-altering variants, 11 of which are de novo, in MED13; the only inherited variant was transmitted to an affected child from an affected mother. All patients had intellectual disability and/or developmental delays, including speech delays or disorders. Other features that were reported in two or more patients include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, optic nerve abnormalities, Duane anomaly, hypotonia, mild congenital heart abnormalities, and dysmorphisms. Six affected individuals had mutations that are predicted to truncate the MED13 protein, six had missense mutations, and one had an in-frame-deletion of one amino acid. Out of the seven non-truncating mutations, six clustered in two specific locations of the MED13 protein: an N-terminal and C-terminal region. The four N-terminal clustering mutations affect two adjacent amino acids that are known to be involved in MED13 ubiquitination and degradation, p.Thr326 and p.Pro327. MED13 is a component of the CDK8-kinase module that can reversibly bind Mediator, a multi-protein complex that is required for Polymerase II transcription initiation. Mutations in several other genes encoding subunits of Mediator have been previously shown to associate with DD/ID, including MED13L, a paralog of MED13. Thus, our findings add MED13 to the group of CDK8-kinase module-associated disease genes. 

Bessenyei B, Balogh I, Mokanszki A, Ujfalusi A, Pfundt R, Szakszon K. MED13L-related intellectual disability due to paternal germinal mosaicism. Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2021 Oct 15:mcs.a006124. doi: 10.1101/mcs.a006124. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34654706. 


The MED13L-related intellectual disability or MRFACD syndrome (Mental retardation and distinctive facial features with or without cardiac defects; MIM # 616789) is one of the most common form of syndromic intellectual disability with about a hundred cases reported so far. Affected individuals share overlapping features comprising intellectual disability, hypotonia, motor delay, remarkable speech delay, and a recognizable facial gestalt. De novo disruption of the MED13L gene by deletions, duplications or sequence variants has been identified deleterious. Siblings affected by intragenic deletion transmitted from a mosaic parent have been reported once in the literature. We now present the first case of paternal germinal mosaicism for a missense MED13L variant causing MRFACD syndrome in one of the father's children and be the likely cause of intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism in the other. As part of the Mediator complex, the MED proteins have an essential role in regulating transcription. 32 subunits of the Mediator complex genes have been linked to congenital malformations that are now acknowledged as transcriptomopathies. The MRFACD syndrome has been suggested to represent a recognizable phenotype. 


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