Katz TA, Vliegenthart RJS, Aarnoudse-Moens CSH, Leemhuis AG, Beuger S, Blok GJ, van Brakel MJM, van den Heuvel MEN, van Kempen AAMW, Lutterman C, Rijpert M, Schiering IA, Ran NC, Visser F, Wilms J, van Kaam AH, Onland W. Severity of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Neurodevelopmental Outcome at 2 and 5 Years Corrected Age. J Pediatr. 2021 Dec 18:S0022-3476(21)01196-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.12.018. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34929243.
Objective: To evaluate the association between bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) severity and risk of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 2 years and 5 years corrected age and to examine whether this association changes over time.
Study design: This single-center retrospective cohort study included patients with a gestational age <30 weeks surviving to 36 weeks postmenstrual age, divided into groups according to BPD severity. NDI was defined as having cognitive or motor abilities below -1 SD, cerebral palsy, or a hearing or a visual impairment. The association was assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model analysis, adjusting for known confounders for NDI, and mixed-model analysis.
Results: Of the 790 surviving infants (15% diagnosed with mild BPD, 9% with moderate BPD, and 10% with severe BPD), 88% and 82% were longitudinally assessed at 2 years and 5 years corrected age, respectively. The mixed-model analysis showed a statistically significant increase in NDI at all levels of BPD severity compared with infants with no BPD, and a 5-fold increased risk in NDI was seen from 2 years to 5 years corrected age in all degrees of BPD severity. The strength of this association between NDI and BPD severity did not change over time.
Conclusions: Increased BPD severity is associated with increased risk of NDI at both 2 years and 5 years corrected age. The absolute incidence of NDI increased significantly from 2 years to 5 years corrected age for all BPD severity categories, but this increased risk was similar at both time points in each category.