Monday, October 10, 2016

DNM1 mutations

Inspired by a patient.

Nakashima M, Kouga T, Lourenço CM, Shiina M, Goto T, Tsurusaki Y, Miyatake S,
Miyake N, Saitsu H, Ogata K, Osaka H, Matsumoto N. De novo DNM1 mutations in two
cases of epileptic  encephalopathy. Epilepsia. 2016 Jan;57(1):e18-23.

Dynamin 1 (DNM1) is a large guanosine triphosphatase involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In recent studies, de novo mutations in DNM1 have been identified in five individuals with epileptic encephalopathy. In this study, we report two patients with early onset epileptic encephalopathy possessing de novo DNM1 mutations. Using whole exome sequencing, we detected the novel mutation c.127G>A (p.Gly43Ser) in a patient with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and a recurrent mutation c.709C>T (p.Arg237Trp) in a patient with West syndrome. Structural consideration of DNM1 mutations revealed that both mutations would destabilize the G domain structure and impair nucleotide binding, dimer formation, and/or GTPase activity of the G domain. These and previous cases of DNM1 mutations were reviewed to verify the phenotypic spectrum. The main clinical features of DNM1 mutations include intractable seizures, intellectual disability, developmental delay, and hypotonia. Most cases showed development delay before the onset of seizures. A patient carrying p.Arg237Trp in this report showed a different developmental status from that of a previously reported case, together with characteristic extrapyramidal movement.

Dhindsa RS, Bradrick SS, Yao X, Heinzen EL, Petrovski S, Krueger BJ, Johnson
MR, Frankel WN, Petrou S, Boumil RM, Goldstein DB. Epileptic
encephalopathy-causing mutations in DNM1 impair synaptic vesicle endocytosis.
Neurol Genet. 2015 Apr 17;1(1):e4.

To elucidate the functional consequences of epileptic encephalopathy-causing de novo mutations in DNM1 (A177P, K206N, G359A), which encodes a large mechanochemical GTPase essential for neuronal synaptic vesicle endocytosis.
HeLa and COS-7 cells transfected with wild-type and mutant DNM1 constructs were used for transferrin assays, high-content imaging, colocalization studies, Western blotting, and electron microscopy (EM). EM was also conducted on the brain sections of mice harboring a middle-domain Dnm1 mutation (Dnm1 (Ftfl)).
We demonstrate that the expression of each mutant protein decreased endocytosis activity in a dominant-negative manner. One of the G-domain mutations, K206N, decreased protein levels. The G359A mutation, which occurs in the middle domain, disrupted higher-order DNM1 oligomerization. EM of mutant DNM1-transfected HeLa cells and of the Dnm1 (Ftfl) mouse brain revealed vesicle defects, indicating that the mutations likely interfere with DNM1's vesicle scission activity.
Together, these data suggest that the dysfunction of vesicle scission during synaptic vesicle endocytosis can lead to serious early-onset epilepsies.

EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium; Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project; Epi4K
Consortium. De novo mutations in synaptic transmission genes including DNM1 cause
epileptic encephalopathies. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Oct 2;95(4):360-70.

Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic landscape. Through a collaboration between two consortia (EuroEPINOMICS and Epi4K/EPGP), we analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the "classical" epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1 in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p = 8.2 × 10(-4)), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have an identifiable causal de novo mutation. Strikingly, 75% of mutations in these probands are predicted to disrupt a protein involved in regulating synaptic transmission, and there is a significant enrichment of de novo mutations in genes in this pathway in the entire cohort as well. These findings emphasize an important role for synaptic dysregulation in epileptic encephalopathies, above and beyond that caused by ion channel dysfunction.

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