Jacobs H, Pakalnis A. Premonitory Symptoms in Episodic and Chronic Migraine From a Pediatric Headache Clinic. Pediatr Neurol. 2019 Mar 29. pii:S0887-8994(19)30048-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.03.023. [Epub ahead of print]
We evaluated the frequency of six commonly reported adult migraine premonitory symptoms in children and adolescents with episodic and chronic migraine and elicited psychological or behavioral comorbidities that may be associated with these symptoms.
Premonitory symptoms are commonly reported in the adult migraine population; however, little information is available for the pediatric population.
Data were collected on new patients being evaluated in our multidisciplinary pediatric headache clinic over a six-month time interval. The data collected from patients diagnosed with migraine were then reviewed for the following premonitory symptoms: yawning, neck stiffness, fatigue, increased urination, mood changes, and food cravings. History was obtained regarding the frequency of headaches and other associated behavioral or psychological problems.
A total of 176 patients were enrolled over a six-month interval, ranging in age from four to 18 years (mean age 12 years); 64% were female, and 42% (74 of 176) of the subjects had at least one premonitory symptom. Patients with migraine with aura were noted to have a significantly higher association with premonitory symptoms (59%, 30 of 51) (P < 0.05). Anxiety disorder was also significantly associated with premonitory symptoms (55%, 11 of 20) (P < 0.05). Fatigue and mood changes were the most commonly reported premonitory symptoms.
Premonitory symptoms occurred frequently in our population of pediatric patients with migraine. Fatigue and mood changes were the most frequent symptoms. There were no significant differences in premonitory symptoms by gender or age group (less than 12 years versus greater than 12 years). Anxiety and migraine with aura were correlated with an increased likelihood of premonitory symptoms.