Saturday, February 8, 2020

2q37 deletion syndrome

Inspired by my niece with 2q37 deletion syndrome who recently passed away unexpectedly at 27 years of age.

Gürsoy S, Kutbay YB, Özdemir TR, Hazan F. The clinical and molecular features of three Turkish patients with a rare genetic disorder: 2q37 deletion syndrome. Turk J Pediatr. 2019;61(4):589-593.

Chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder which is characterized by mild-moderate intellectual disability, brachymetaphalangy of digits 3-5, short stature, obesity, hypotonia and characteristic facial appearance. Here, we report three Turkish patients who have 2q37 deletion in aCGH analysis with various sizes (9.08 Mb, 2.3 Mb and 2.021 Mb, respectively). HDAC4 gene, which is a class II histone deacetylase, has been considered to be associated with most of the features including brachymetaphalangy and intellectual disability. The deletion region included HDAC4 gene in the two patients. However, all of the patients had intellectual disability, especially with a cheerful mood. Some autistic features were detected in one of our patients. Although two patients had some skeletal findings, the deletion region did not contain HDAC4 gene in one of the patients. We suggest that our findings support understanding and updating knowledge on the phenotype-genotype correlation in patients with 2q37 deletion syndrome.

Le TN, Williams SR, Alaimo JT, Elsea SH. Genotype and phenotype correlation in 103 individuals with 2q37 deletion syndrome reveals incomplete penetrance and supports HDAC4 as the primary genetic contributor. Am J Med Genet A. 2019 May;179(5):782-791.

The 2q37 deletion syndrome, also described in the literature as brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (MIM 600430), is caused by deletion or haploinsufficiency of the HDAC4 gene, which encodes the histone deacetylase 4 protein. Although the most commonly described hallmark features of the 2q37 deletion syndrome include brachydactyly type E, developmental delay, obesity, autistic features, and craniofacial or skeletal dysmorphism, a literature review of 101 published cases plus two newly reported individuals indicates that there is a high degree of variability in the presence of some of the features that are considered the most characteristic of the syndrome: overweight and obesity (34%), cognitive-behavioral issues (79%), dysmorphic craniofacial features (86%), and type E brachydactyly (48%). These features overlap with other neurodevelopmental conditions, including Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), and may be incompletely penetrant or demonstrate variable expressivity, depending on the specific chromosomal anomaly. With the advent of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), array-based comparative genomic hybridization, and next-generation DNA sequencing, more detailed molecular diagnoses are possible than in years past, enabling refined characterization of the genotype-phenotype correlation for subjects with 2q37 deletions. In addition, investigations into molecular and gene expression networks are expanding in neurodevelopmental conditions, and we surveyed HDAC4 downstream gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, further implicating HDAC4 in its role in the regulation of RAI1. Correlation of clinical data defining the impact on downstream gene expression and the potential clinical associations across neurodevelopment will improve our understanding of these complex conditions and potentially lead to common therapeutic approaches.

Pacault M, Nizon M, Pichon O, Vincent M, Le Caignec C, Isidor B. A de novo 2q37.2 deletion encompassing AGAP1 and SH3BP4 in a patient with autism and intellectual disability. Eur J Med Genet. 2019 Dec;62(12):103586.

Autism spectrum disorders are complex neurodevelopmental syndromes characterized by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Further identification of causal genes may help in better understanding the underlying mechanisms of the disorder, thus improving the patients' management. To date, abnormal synaptogenesis is thought to be one of the major underlying causes of autism spectrum disorders. Here, using oligoarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, we identified a de novo deletion at 2q37.2 locus spanning 1 Mb and encompassing AGAP1 and SH3BP4, in a boy with autism and intellectual disability. Both genes have been described as being involved in endosomal trafficking, and AGAP1 in particular has been shown to be expressed in the developing brain and to play a role in dendritic spine formation and synapse function, making it a potential causative gene to our patient's phenotype.

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