Thursday, March 25, 2021

Prolonged epileptic discharges predict seizure recurrence in JME

Turco F, Bonanni E, Milano C, Pizzanelli C, Steinwurzel C, Morganti R, Fornai F, Maestri M, Siciliano G, Giorgi FS. Prolonged epileptic discharges predict seizure recurrence in JME: Insights from prolonged ambulatory EEG. Epilepsia. 2021 Mar 18. doi: 10.1111/epi.16875. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33735449.


Objective: Markers of seizure recurrence are needed to personalize antiseizure medication (ASM) therapy. In the clinical practice, EEG features are considered to be related to the risk of seizure recurrence for genetic generalized epilepsies (GGE). However, to our knowledge, there are no studies analyzing systematically specific EEG features as indices of ASM efficacy in GGE. In this study, we aimed at identifying EEG indicators of ASM responsiveness in Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME), which, among GGE, is characterized by specific electroclinical features. 

Methods: We compared the features of prolonged ambulatory EEG (paEEG, 22 h of recording) of JME patients experiencing seizure recurrence within a year ("cases") after EEG recording, with those of patients with sustained seizure freedom for at least 1 year after EEG ("controls"). We included only EEG recordings of patients who had maintained the same ASM regimen (dosage and type) throughout the whole time period from the EEG recording up to the outcome events (which was seizure recurrence for the "cases", or 1-year seizure freedom for "controls"). As predictors, we evaluated the total number, frequency, mean and maximum duration of epileptiform discharges (EDs) and spike density (i.e. total EDs duration/artifact-free EEG duration) recorded during the paEEG. The same indexes were assessed also in standard EEG (stEEG), including activation methods. 

Results: Both the maximum length and the mean duration of EDs recorded during paEEG significantly differed between cases and controls; when combined in a binary logistic regression model, the maximum length of EDs emerged as the only valid predictor. A cut-off of EDs duration of 2.68 seconds discriminated between cases and controls with a 100% specificity and a 93% sensitivity. The same indexes collected during stEEG lacked both specificity and sensitivity. 

Significance: The occurrence of prolonged EDs in EEG recording might represent an indicator of antiepileptic drug failure in JME patients.

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