Al Mutairi F, Alfadhel M, Nashabat M, El-Hattab AW, Ben-Omran T, Hertecant J, Eyaid W, Ali R, Alasmari A, Kara M, Al-Twaijri W, Filimban R, Alshenqiti A, Al-Owain M, Faqeih E, Alkuraya FS. Phenotypic and Molecular Spectrum of Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome: A Study of 24 Patients. Pediatr Neurol. 2017 Oct 5. pii: S0887-8994(17)30716-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2017.09.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a rare genetic neurological disorder with variable clinical manifestations. Molecular detection of specific mutations is required to confirm the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to review the clinical and molecular diagnostic findings in 24 individuals with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome who presented during childhood in an Arab population.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed the records of 24 patients from six tertiary hospitals in different Arab countries. All included patients had a molecular diagnosis of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome.
Six individuals with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (25%) had a neonatal presentation, whereas the remaining patients presented during the first year of life. Patients presented with developmental delay (24 cases, 100%); spasticity (24 cases, 100%); speech delay (23 cases, 95.8%); profound intellectual disability (21 cases, 87.5%); truncal hypotonia (21 cases, 87.5%); seizures (eighteen cases, 75%); and epileptic encephalopathy (15 cases, 62.5%). Neuroimaging showed white matter abnormalities (22 cases, 91.7%), cerebral atrophy (75%), and small, multifocal calcifications in the lentiform nuclei and deep cerebral white matter (54.2%). Homozygous mutations were identified in RNASEH2B (54.2%), RNASEH2A (20.8%), RNASEH2C (8.3%), SAMHD1 (8.3%), TREX1 (4.2%), and heterozygous mutations in IFIH1 (4.2%), with c.356A>G (p.Asp119Gly) in RNASEH2B being the most frequent mutation. Three novel mutations c.987delT and c.625 + 1G>A in SAMHD1 gene and c.961G>T in the IFIHI1 gene were identified.
This is the largest molecularly confirmed Aicardi-Goutières syndrome cohort from Arabia. By presenting these clinical and molecular findings, we hope to raise awareness of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and to demonstrate the importance of specialist referral and molecular diagnosis.