Jaszczuk I, Schlotawa L, Dierks T, Ohlenbusch A, Koppenhöfer D, Babicz M, Lejman M, Radhakrishnan K, Ługowska A. Expanding the genetic cause of multiple sulfatase deficiency: A novel SUMF1 variant in a patient displaying a severe late infantile form of the disease. Mol Genet Metab. 2017 Jul;121(3):252-258.
Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is a rare inherited metabolic disease caused by defective cellular sulfatases. Activity of sulfatases depends on post-translational modification catalyzed by formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE), encoded by the SUMF1 gene. SUMF1 pathologic variants cause MSD, a syndrome presenting with a complex phenotype. We describe the first Polish patient with MSD caused by a yet undescribed pathologic variant c.337G>A [p.Glu113Lys] (i.e. p.E113K) in heterozygous combination with the known deletion allele c.519+5_519+8del [p.Ala149_Ala173del]. The clinical picture of the patient initially suggested late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy, with developmental delay followed by regression of visual, hearing and motor abilities as the most apparent clinical symptoms. Transient signs of ichthyosis and minor dysmorphic features guided the laboratory workup towards MSD. Since MSD is a rare disease and there is a variable clinical spectrum, we thoroughly describe the clinical outcome of our patient. The FGE-E113K variant, expressed in cell culture, correctly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum but was retained intracellularly in contrast to the wild type FGE. Analysis of FGE-mediated activation of steroid sulfatase in immortalized MSD cells revealed that FGE-E113K exhibited only approx. 15% of the activity of wild type FGE. Based on the crystal structure we predict that the exchange of glutamate-113 against lysine should induce a strong destabilization of the secondary structure, possibly affecting the folding for correct disulfide bridging between C235-C346 as well as distortion of the active site groove that could affect both the intracellular stability as well as the activity of FGE. Thus, the novel variant of the SUMF1 gene obviously results in functionally impaired FGE protein leading to a severe late infantile type of MSD.
Miskin C, Melvin JJ, Legido A, Wenger DA, Harasink SM, Khurana DS. A Patient With Atypical Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency. Pediatr Neurol. 2016 Apr;57:98-100.
Multiple sulfatase deficiency is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the absence of several sulfatases and resulting from mutations in the gene encoding the human C (alpha)-formylglycine-generating enzyme. There have been a variety of biochemical and clinical presentations reported in this disorder.
We present a 4-year-old girl with clinical findings of microcephaly, spondylolisthesis and neurological regression without ichthyosis, coarse facies, and organomegaly.
The child's magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated confluent white matter abnormalities involving the periventricular and deep cerebral white matter with the U-fibers relatively spared. Biochemical testing showing low arylsulfatase A levels were initially thought to be consistent with a diagnosis of metachromatic leukodystrophy. The diagnosis of multiple sulfatase deficiency was pursued when genetic testing for metachromatic leukodystrophy was negative.
This child illustrates the clinical heterogeneity of multiple sulfatase deficiency and that this disorder can occur without the classic clinical features.
Sabourdy F, Mourey L, Le Trionnaire E, Bednarek N, Caillaud C, Chaix Y, Delrue MA, Dusser A, Froissart R, Garnotel R, Guffon N, Megarbane A, Ogier de Baulny H, Pédespan JM, Pichard S, Valayannopoulos V, Verloes A, Levade T. Natural disease history and characterisation of SUMF1 molecular defects in ten unrelated patients with multiple sulfatase deficiency. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2015 Mar 15;10:31.
Multiple sulfatase deficiency is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the SUMF1 gene. The disease remains poorly known, often leading to a late diagnosis. This study aimed to provide improved knowledge of the disease, through complete clinical, biochemical, and molecular descriptions of a cohort of unrelated patients. The main objective was to identify prognostic markers, both phenotypic and genotypic, to accelerate the diagnosis and improve patient care.
The phenotypes of ten unrelated patients were fully documented at the clinical and biochemical levels. The long-term follow-up of each patient allowed correlations of the phenotypes to the disease outcomes. Each patient's molecular defects were also identified. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to individually express the mutants and assess their stability. Characterisation of the protein mutants was completed by in silico analyses based on sequence comparisons and structural models.
The most severe cases were characterised by the presence of non-neurological symptoms as well as the occurrence of psychomotor regression before 2 years of age. Nine novel SUMF1 mutations were identified. Clinically severe forms were often associated with SUMF1 mutations that strongly affected the protein stability and/or catalytic function as predicted from in silico and western blot analyses.
This detailed clinical description and follow-up of a cohort of patients, together with the molecular characterisation of their underlying defects, contribute to improved knowledge of multiple sulfatase deficiency. Predictors of a bad prognosis were the presence of several non-neurological symptoms and the onset of psychomotor regression before 2 years of age. No strict correlation existed between in vitro residual sulfatase activity and disease severity. Genotype-phenotype correlations related to previously reported mutants were strengthened. These and previous observations allow not only improved prediction of the disease outcome but also provision of appropriate care for patients, in the expectation of specific treatment development.