Thursday, September 7, 2017

DYRK1A haploinsufficiency

Inspired by a patient

Ji J, Lee H, Argiropoulos B, Dorrani N, Mann J, Martinez-Agosto JA, Gomez-Ospina N, Gallant N, Bernstein JA, Hudgins L, Slattery L, Isidor B, Le Caignec C, David A, Obersztyn E, Wiƛniowiecka-Kowalnik B, Fox M, Deignan JL, Vilain E, Hendricks E, Horton Harr M, Noon SE, Jackson JR, Wilkens A, Mirzaa G, Salamon N, Abramson J, Zackai EH, Krantz I, Innes AM, Nelson SF, Grody WW, Quintero-Rivera F. DYRK1A haploinsufficiency causes a new recognizable syndrome
with microcephaly, intellectual disability, speech impairment, and distinct facies. Eur J Hum Genet. 2015 Nov;23(11):1473-81.

Dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1 A (DYRK1A ) is a highly conserved gene located in the Down syndrome critical region. It has an important role in early development and regulation of neuronal proliferation. Microdeletions of chromosome 21q22.12q22.3 that include DYRK1A (21q22.13) are rare and only a few pathogenic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the DYRK1A gene have been described, so as of yet, the landscape of DYRK1A disruptions and their associated phenotype has not been fully explored. We have identified 14 individuals with de novo heterozygous variants of DYRK1A; five with microdeletions, three with small insertions or deletions (INDELs) and six with deleterious SNVs. The analysis of our cohort and comparison with published cases reveals that phenotypes are consistent among individuals with the 21q22.12q22.3 microdeletion and those with translocation, SNVs, or INDELs within DYRK1A. All individuals shared congenital microcephaly at birth, intellectual disability, developmental delay, severe speech impairment, short stature, and distinct facial features. The sng difficulties were present in two-thirds of all affected individuals. Our study demonstrates that haploinsufficiency of DYRK1A results in a new recognizable syndrome, which should be considered in individuals with Angelman syndrome-like features and distinct facial features. Our report represents the largest cohort of individuals with DYRK1A disruptions to date, and is the first attempt to define consistent genotype-phenotype correlations among subjects with 21q22.13 microdeletions and DYRK1A SNVs or small INDELs.

Luco SM, Pohl D, Sell E, Wagner JD, Dyment DA, Daoud H. Case report of novel DYRK1A mutations in 2 individuals with syndromic intellectual disability and a review of the literature. BMC Med Genet. 2016 Feb 27;17:15.

Chromosomal deletions encompassing DYRK1A have been associated with intellectual disability for several years. More recently, point mutations in DYRK1A have been shown to be responsible for a recognizable syndrome characterized by microcephaly, developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID) as well as characteristic facial features. Here we present 2 individuals with novel mutations in DYRK1A, and a review of the cases reported to date.
Both individuals presented with the well-known characteristic features, as well as rarer anomalies seen in a minority of patients. Patient 1 presented shortly after birth with an enlarged cisterna magna, distal contractures, and distinctive facies that included bitemporal narrowing and deep set eyes. A de novo splice site mutation in DYRK1A [c.951 + 4_951 + 7delAGTA; p.Val222Aspfs*22] was identified by next generation sequencing. Patient 2 presented at 7 months of age with microcephaly and dysmorphic features. She went several years without a diagnosis until a de novo DYRK1A nonsense mutation [c.787C>T; p.(Arg263*)] was identified at age 12. These individuals, and the 52 cases reviewed from the literature, show the characteristic features of the DYRK1A-related syndrome including global developmental delay, ID, microcephaly, feeding difficulties, and the facial gestalt. Other common findings include seizures, vision defects, brain abnormalities and skeletal abnormalities of the hands and feet. Less common features include optic nerve defects, contractures, ataxia, and cardiac anomalies.

DYRK1A testing should be considered in individuals with the facial features, intellectual disability and post-natal microcephaly. Once diagnosed with DYRK1A-related intellectual disability, a cardiac and ophthalmologic assessment would be recommended as would routine surveillance by a pediatrician for psychomotor development, growth, and feeding.

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