Inspired by a colleague's patient
Zapata-Aldana E, Kim DD, Remtulla S, Prasad C, Nguyen CT, Campbell C. Further delineation of TBCK - Infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies type 3. Eur J Med Genet. 2019 Apr;62(4):273-277.
Deleterious homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the TBCK (TBC1-domain-containing kinase) gene (implicated in the MTOR pathway) produce profound hypotonia, global developmental delay, facial dysmorphic features, and brain abnormalities. The disorder has been named "infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies-3" (IHPRF3). Here we present two sisters with a novel mutation in TBCK (NM_001163435.2: c.753dup; p.(Lys252*)) who have this ultrarare disorder. We have reviewed the literature on the 33 previously reported cases to provide a characterization of this emerging phenotype. Pathogenic mutations in TBCK have a predominant involvement of the Central Nervous System with a progressive pattern, leading to the conclusion where pathogenic mutations of the said gene lead to a progressive neurodegenerative disease. This report adds novel mutation and features to this complex phenotype. Further investigation is required to understand the pathogenesis of TBCK.
Mandel H, Khayat M, Chervinsky E, Elpeleg O, Shalev S. TBCK-related intellectual disability syndrome: Case study of two patients. Am J Med Genet A. 2017 Feb;173(2):491-494.
There is a significant level of genetic heterogeneity underlying the phenotype of nonspecific hypotonia with severe intellectual disability. Exome sequencing has proven to be a powerful tool for identifying the underlying molecular basis of such nonspecific, abnormal neurological phenotypes. Mutations in the TBCK gene have been reported associated with very poor, if any, psychomotor development, poor speech, and inability to walk independently. We describe the long-term phenotypic evolution of a severe nonspecific neurodevelopmental disorder in two siblings born to an Arab-Moslem family living in northern Israel. Exome sequencing led to identification of a novel homozygous mutation: c.1854delT in the TBCK gene. Abnormal elevated β-HCG was found in the maternal serum during the two pregnancies, a finding that has not been reported before. These individuals present with severe intellectual disability, no speech, hypotonia, convulsions, and lack of any independent daily skills.
Chong JX, Caputo V, Phelps IG, Stella L, Worgan L, Dempsey JC, Nguyen A, Leuzzi V, Webster R, Pizzuti A, Marvin CT, Ishak GE, Ardern-Holmes S, Richmond Z; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Bamshad MJ, Ortiz-Gonzalez XR, Tartaglia M, Chopra M, Doherty D. Recessive Inactivating Mutations in TBCK, Encoding a Rab GTPase-Activating Protein, Cause Severe Infantile Syndromic Encephalopathy. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Apr 7;98(4):772-81.
Infantile encephalopathies are a group of clinically and biologically heterogeneous disorders for which the genetic basis remains largely unknown. Here, we report a syndromic neonatal encephalopathy characterized by profound developmental disability, severe hypotonia, seizures, diminished respiratory drive requiring mechanical ventilation, brain atrophy, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphism. Biallelic inactivating mutations in TBCK (TBC1-domain-containing kinase) were independently identified by whole-exome sequencing as the cause of this condition in four unrelated families. Matching these families was facilitated by the sharing of phenotypic profiles and WES data in a recently released web-based tool (Geno2MP) that links phenotypic information to rare variants in families with Mendelian traits. TBCK is a putative GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for small GTPases of the Rab family and has been shown to control cell growth and proliferation, actin-cytoskeleton dynamics, and mTOR signaling. Two of the three mutations (c.376C>T [p.Arg126(∗)] and c.1363A>T [p.Lys455(∗)]) are predicted to truncate the protein, and loss of the major TBCK isoform was confirmed in primary fibroblasts from one affected individual. The third mutation, c.1532G>A (p.Arg511His), alters a conserved residue within the TBC1 domain. Structural analysis implicated Arg511 as a required residue for Rab-GAP function, and in silico homology modeling predicted impaired GAP function in the corresponding mutant. These results suggest that loss of Rab-GAP activity is the underlying mechanism of disease. In contrast to other disorders caused by dysregulated mTOR signaling associated with focal or global brain overgrowth, impaired TBCK function results in progressive loss of brain volume.