Thursday, June 22, 2017

Chromosome 15q duplication syndrome

Inspired by a patient

Verrotti A, Sertorio F, Matricardi S, Ferrara P, Striano P. Electroclinical features of epilepsy in patients with InvDup(15). Seizure. 2017 Apr;47:87-91. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2017.03.006. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

InvDup(15) syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities associated with epilepsy. Here we review the seizure types described in InvDup(15) patients and the main electroclinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of the syndrome.
A literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE was performed to identify papers examining InvDup(15) syndrome and epilepsy.
About 65% of the InvDup(15) patients described in the literature had multiple seizure types with a predominance (40.4%) of tonic-clonic seizures. Age at seizure onset was before 10 years in more than half of them. Patients suffered from a variety of EEG abnormalities, generalized spike activity being the most frequent. Brain MRI was unremarkable in the majority of patients. Treatment was with several anticonvulsant drugs used as mono- or polytherapy. Valproic acid was the most common treatment against generalized seizures and was often effective, although drug resistance was a major concern in a large number of cases. Finally, more than 30% of the children suffered from infantile spasms, and status epilepticus was described in nearly 20% of patients, occasionally resulting in death.
Seizures are very common in InvDup(15) patients, who suffer from a variety of seizure types. Information about EEG and brain MRI findings, seizure treatment, and prognosis is often poor. The overall prognosis is fair. Prospective studies of larger samples are needed, to gain further insights into the natural history of InvDup(15) syndrome.

Luchsinger K, Lau H, Hedlund JL, Friedman D, Krushel K, Devinsky O. Parental-reported pain insensitivity in Dup15q. Epilepsy Behav. 2016 Feb;55:124-7. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.10.007. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

Parents of children with chromosome 15q duplication syndrome (Dup15q) have anecdotally reported high pain threshold as a feature of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to document parental-reported estimates of the frequency of high pain tolerance and the stimuli that fail to evoke a normal pain response. We sent an online survey to 840 families with children with Dup15q to explore the frequency and clinical manifestations of high pain threshold. There were 216 respondents (25.7%). A high pain threshold was reported in 87% of children at some time. There was a trend (p=0.06) for high pain threshold to be more commonly observed among children with the isodicentric (85.6%) and other genetic variants (95%) than interstitial (69.6%) duplications. There was no association between reports of high pain threshold and reports of an intellectual disability (91% of cases), autism spectrum disorder (83% of cases), or self-injurious behavior (40% of cases). Reports included many dramatic cases such as severe burns, broken bones, and electrical traumas, which were associated with little or no evidence of a painful stimulus. A high pain threshold is reported in other disorders associated with intellectual disability and autism; the underlying mechanism in Dup15q and other disorders remains undefined.

Boronat S, Mehan WA, Shaaya EA, Thibert RL, Caruso P. Hippocampal abnormalities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 15q duplication syndromes. J Child Neurol. 2015 Mar;30(3):333-8.

Patients with 15q duplication syndromes, including isodicentric chromosome 15 and interstitial duplications, usually present with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and frequently epilepsy. Neuroimaging studies in these patients are typically reported as normal, but nonspecific findings such as thinning of the corpus callosum and increased pericerebral spaces have been reported. A review of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 11 individuals seen at the Massachusetts General Hospital Dup15q Center was performed. Hippocampus morphology was specifically reviewed, as a recent neuropathologic study has found frequent hippocampal heterotopias and dysplasias in these disorders. Two subjects had unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and 6 had bilateral hippocampal malformations. Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum was present in 2 subjects. 

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