Given the critical role that iron plays in neurodevelopment, an association between prenatal iron deficiency and later risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intellectual disability (ID), is plausible.
To test the a priori hypothesis that anemia diagnosed in mothers during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of ASD, ADHD, and ID in offspring and that the magnitude of the risk varies with regard to the timing of anemia in pregnancy.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
This cohort study used health and population register data from the Stockholm Youth Cohort to evaluate 532 232 nonadoptive children born from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2010, in Sweden, with follow-up in health registers until December 31, 2016. Data analysis was performed from January 15, 2018, to June 20, 2018.
Registered diagnoses of anemia during pregnancy. Gestational timing of the first recorded anemia diagnosis (≤30 weeks or >30 weeks) was considered to assess potential critical windows of development.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:
Registered diagnoses of ASD, ADHD, or ID or co-occurring combinations of these disorders.
The cohort included 532 232 individuals (272 884 [51.3%] male) between 6 and 29 years of age at the end of follow-up (mean [SD] age, 17.6 [7.1] years) and their 299 768 mothers. The prevalence of ASD, ADHD, and ID was higher among children born to mothers diagnosed with anemia within the first 30 weeks of pregnancy (4.9% ASD, 9.3% ADHD, and 3.1% ID) compared with mothers with anemia diagnosed later in pregnancy (3.8% ASD, 7.2% ADHD, and 1.1% ID) or mothers not diagnosed with anemia (3.5% ASD, 7.1% ADHD, and 1.3% ID). Anemia diagnosed during the first 30 weeks of pregnancy but not later was associated with increased risk of diagnosis of ASD (odds ratio [OR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.13-1.84), ADHD (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.14-1.64), and ID (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.61-3.01) in offspring in models that included socioeconomic, maternal, and pregnancy-related factors. Early anemia diagnosis was similarly associated with risk of ASD (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.24-4.11) and ID (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.08-6.22) in a matched sibling comparison. Considering mutually exclusive diagnostic groups, we observed the strongest association between anemia and ID without co-occurring ASD (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.84-4.01). Associations of these disorders with anemia diagnosed later in pregnancy were greatly diminished.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:
In contrast to maternal anemia diagnosed toward the end of pregnancy, anemia diagnosed earlier in pregnancy was associated with increased risk of the development of ASD, ADHD, and particularly ID in offspring. Given that iron deficiency and anemia are common among women of childbearing age, our findings emphasize the importance of early screening for iron status and nutritional counseling in antenatal care.
Courtesy of: https://www.mdlinx.com/journal-summaries/anemia-mothers-pregnancy-asd-adhd-intellectual/2019/09/24/7579586?spec=neurology
Maher GM, O'Keeffe GW, Dalman C, Kearney PM, McCarthy FP, Kenny LC, Khashan AS. Association between preeclampsia and autism spectrum disorder: a population-based study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2019 Sep 17. doi:10.1111/jcpp.13127. [Epub ahead of print]
The environmental contribution of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is approximately 17%-50%, highlighting the importance of investigating factors potentially contributing to the likelihood of its development, and of gaining a greater understanding of the pathogenesis surrounding ASD. The objective of this study was to examine the association between preeclampsia and ASD using a population-based cohort study.
All singleton live births in Sweden from 1982 to 2010 were included, using data from Swedish National Registers. Exposures of interest included: (a) preeclampsia (classified according to ICD-8, ICD-9 and ICD-10) and (b) preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) combined, used as a proxy for preeclampsia with placental dysfunction. ASD status was based on ICD-9 and ICD-10. The cohort consisted of 2,842,230 children, with 54,071 cases of ASD. Follow-up began from the child's first birthday, and data were censored at first diagnosis of ASD, death, migration or end of study period (31st December 2016). We conducted multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusting for several perinatal and sociodemographic factors, selected a priori. We further controlled for shared genetic and familial confounding using sibling-matched analysis.
In the adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, preeclampsia was associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of ASD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.25, 95% CI:1.19, 1.30) compared with those unexposed to preeclampsia, while in the sibling-matched analysis the HR was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.28). The HR for preeclampsia and SGA combined was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.49, 1.85) in the adjusted Cox model and 1.95 (95% CI: 1.53, 2.48) in the sibling-matched analysis.
Exposure to preeclampsia or preeclampsia/SGA (i.e. SGA baby exposed to preeclampsia) was associated with ASD. The stronger association with preeclampsia/SGA than preeclampsia alone suggests that placental pathology may be a mechanism for the increased likelihood of ASD.
Courtesy of: https://www.mdlinx.com/journal-summaries/autism-spectrum-disorder-preeclampsia-epidemiology/2019/09/24/7579393?spec=neurology