Al-Hassnan ZN, Al-Dosary M, Alfadhel M, Faqeih EA, Alsagob M, Kenana R, Almass R, Al-Harazi OS, Al-Hindi H, Malibari OI, Almutari FB, Tulbah S, Alhadeq F, Al-Sheddi T, Alamro R, AlAsmari A, Almuntashri M, Alshaalan H, Al-Mohanna FA, Colak D, Kaya N. ISCA2 mutation causes infantile neurodegenerative mitochondrial disorder. J Med Genet. 2015 Mar;52(3):186-94.
There are numerous nuclear genes that cause mitochondrial disorders and clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders whose aetiology often remains unsolved. In this study, we aim to investigate an autosomal recessive syndrome causing leukodystrophy and neuroregression. We studied six patients from five unrelated consanguineous families.
Patients underwent full neurological, radiological, genetic, metabolic and dysmorphological examinations. Exome sequencing coupled with autozygosity mapping, Sanger sequencing, microsatellite haplotyping, standard and molecular karyotyping and whole mitochondrial DNA sequencing were used to identify the genetic cause of the syndrome. Immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, dipstick assays, quantitative PCR, reverse transcription PCR and quantitative reverse transcription PCR were performed on different tissue samples from the patients.
We identified a homoallelic missense founder mutation in ISCA2 leading to mitochondrial depletion and reduced complex I activity as well as decreased ISCA2, ISCA1 and IBA57 expression in fibroblasts. MRI indicated similar white matter abnormalities in the patients. Histological examination of the skeletal muscle showed mild to moderate variation in myofibre size and the presence of many randomly distributed atrophic fibres.
Our data demonstrate that ISCA2 deficiency leads to a hereditary mitochondrial neurodegenerative white matter disease in infancy.
Debray FG, Stümpfig C, Vanlander AV, Dideberg V, Josse C, Caberg JH, Boemer F, Bours V, Stevens R, Seneca S, Smet J, Lill R, van Coster R. Mutation of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly gene IBA57 causes fatal infantile leukodystrophy. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2015 Nov;38(6):1147-53.
Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of severe genetic neurodegenerative disorders. A multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome was found in an infant presenting with a progressive leukoencephalopathy. Homozygosity mapping, whole exome sequencing, and functional studies were used to define the underlying molecular defect. Respiratory chain studies in skeletal muscle isolated from the proband revealed a combined deficiency of complexes I and II. In addition, western blotting indicated lack of protein lipoylation. The combination of these findings was suggestive for a defect in the iron-sulfur (Fe/S) protein assembly pathway. SNP array identified loss of heterozygosity in large chromosomal regions, covering the NFU1 and BOLA3, and the IBA57 and ABCB10 candidate genes, in 2p15-p11.2 and 1q31.1-q42.13, respectively. A homozygous c.436C > T (p.Arg146Trp) variant was detected in IBA57 using whole exome sequencing. Complementation studies in a HeLa cell line depleted for IBA57 showed that the mutant protein with the semi-conservative amino acid exchange was unable to restore the biochemical phenotype indicating a loss-of-function mutation of IBA57. In conclusion, defects in the Fe/S protein assembly gene IBA57 can cause autosomal recessive neurodegeneration associated with progressive leukodystrophy and fatal outcome at young age. In the affected patient, the biochemical phenotype was characterized by a defect in the respiratory chain complexes I and II and a decrease in mitochondrial protein lipoylation, both resulting from impaired assembly of Fe/S clusters.
Ajit Bolar N, Vanlander AV, Wilbrecht C, Van der Aa N, Smet J, De Paepe B, Vandeweyer G, Kooy F, Eyskens F, De Latter E, Delanghe G, Govaert P, Leroy JG, Loeys B, Lill R, Van Laer L, Van Coster R. Mutation of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly gene IBA57 causes severe myopathy and encephalopathy. Hum Mol Genet. 2013 Jul 1;22(13):2590-602.
Two siblings from consanguineous parents died perinatally with a condition characterized by generalized hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, arthrogryposis, microcephaly, congenital brain malformations and hyperglycinemia. Catalytic activities of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes I and II were deficient in skeletal muscle, a finding suggestive of an inborn error in mitochondrial biogenesis. Homozygosity mapping identified IBA57 located in the largest homozygous region on chromosome 1 as a culprit candidate gene. IBA57 is known to be involved in the biosynthesis of mitochondrial [4Fe-4S] proteins. Sequence analysis of IBA57 revealed the homozygous mutation c.941A > C, p.Gln314Pro. Severely decreased amounts of IBA57 protein were observed in skeletal muscle and cultured skin fibroblasts from the affected subjects. HeLa cells depleted of IBA57 showed biochemical defects resembling the ones found in patient-derived cells, including a decrease in various mitochondrial [4Fe-4S] proteins and in proteins covalently linked to lipoic acid (LA), a cofactor produced by the [4Fe-4S] protein LA synthase. The defects could be complemented by wild-type IBA57 and partially by mutant IBA57. As a result of the mutation, IBA57 protein was excessively degraded, an effect ameliorated by protease inhibitors. Hence, we propose that the mutation leads to partial functional impairment of IBA57, yet the major pathogenic impact is due to its proteolytic degradation below physiologically critical levels. In conclusion, the ensuing lethal complex biochemical phenotype of a novel metabolic syndrome results from multiple Fe/S protein defects caused by a deficiency in the Fe/S cluster assembly protein IBA57.