Saturday, April 28, 2018

Comparison of ocular ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging for detection of increased intracranial pressure

Patterson DF, Ho M-L, Leavitt JA, Smischney NJ, Hocker SE, Wijdicks EF, Hodge DO and Chen JJ-W (2018) Comparison of Ocular Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detection of Increased Intracranial Pressure. Front. Neurol. 9:278. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00278


Background/aims: To evaluate and compare the performance of ocular ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH).

Methods: Twenty-two patients with papilledema from IIH and 22 with pseudopapilledema were prospectively recruited based on funduscopic and clinical findings. Measurements of optic nerve sheath diameters (ONSDs) 3 mm behind the inner sclera were performed on B-scan US and axial T2-weighted MRI examinations. Pituitary-to-sella height ratio (pit/sella) was also calculated from sagittal T1-weighted MRI images. Lumbar puncture was performed in all patients with IIH and in five patients with pseudopapilledema.

Results: Average US and MRI ONSD were 4.4 (SD ± 0.7) and 5.2 ± 1.4 mm for the pseudopapilledema group and 5.2 ± 0.6 and 7.2 ± 1.6 mm for the papilledema group (p < 0.001). Average MRI pit/sella ratio was 0.7 ± 0.3 for the pseudopapilledema group and 0.3 ± 0.2 for the papilledema group (p < 0.001). Based on receiver-operator curve analysis, the optimal thresholds for detecting papilledema are US ONSD > 4.8 mm, MRI ONSD > 6.0 mm, and MRI pit/sella < 0.5. Combining a dilated US ONSD or MRI ONSD with a below-threshold MRI pit/sella ratio yielded a sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 96% for detecting IIH. Adding the US ONSD to the MRI ONSD and pit/sella ratio only increased the sensitivity by 5% and did not change specificity.

Conclusion: US and MRI provide measurements of ONSD that are well-correlated and sensitive markers for increased ICP. The combination of the ONSD and the pit/sella ratio can increase specificity for the diagnosis of IIH.

Courtesy of Doximity

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