Hennes EM, Baumann M, Schanda K, Anlar B, Bajer-Kornek B, Blaschek A, Brantner-Inthaler S, Diepold K, Eisenkölbl A, Gotwald T, Kuchukhidze G, Gruber-Sedlmayr U, Häusler M, Höftberger R, Karenfort M, Klein A, Koch J, Kraus V, Lechner C, Leiz S, Leypoldt F, Mader S, Marquard K, Poggenburg I, Pohl D, Pritsch M, Raucherzauner M, Schimmel M, Thiels C, Tibussek D, Vieker S, Zeches C, Berger T, Reindl M, Rostásy K; BIOMARKER Study Group. Prognostic relevance of MOG antibodies in children with an acquired demyelinating syndrome. Neurology. 2017
To assess the prognostic value of MOG antibodies (abs) in the differential diagnosis of acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS).
Clinical course, MRI, MOG-abs, AQP4-abs, and CSF cells and oligoclonal bands (OCB) in children with ADS and 24 months of follow-up were reviewed in this observational prospective multicenter hospital-based study.
Two hundred ten children with ADS were included and diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (n = 60), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) (n = 12), clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) (n = 101), and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 37) after the first episode. MOG-abs were predominantly found in ADEM (57%) and less frequently in NMOSD (25%), CIS (25%), or MS (8%). Increased MOG-ab titers were associated with younger age (p = 0.0001), diagnosis of ADEM (p = 0.005), increased CSF cell counts (p = 0.011), and negative OCB (p = 0.012). At 24-month follow-up, 96 children had no further relapses. Thirty-five children developed recurrent non-MS episodes (63% MOG-, 17% AQP4-abs at onset). Seventy-nine children developed MS (4% MOG-abs at onset). Recurrent non-MS episodes were associated with high MOG-ab titers (p = 0.0003) and older age at onset (p = 0.024). MS was predicted by MS-like MRI (p < 0.0001) and OCB (p = 0.007). An MOG-ab cutoff titer ≥1:1,280 predicted a non-MS course with a sensitivity of 47% and a specificity of 100% and a recurrent non-MS course with a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 86%.
Our results show that the presence of MOG-abs strongly depends on the age at disease onset and that high MOG-ab titers were associated with a recurrent non-MS disease course.
Hennes EM, Baumann M, Lechner C, Rostásy K. MOG Spectrum Disorders and Role of MOG-Antibodies in Clinical Practice. Neuropediatrics. 2018 Feb;49(1):3-11. doi:
10.1055/s-0037-1604404. Epub 2017 Aug 31. PubMed PMID: 28859212.
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies (abs) are present in one third of all children with an acute demyelinating syndrome (ADS). MOG-abs can be found in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), transverse myelitis, isolated optic neuritis (ON), or recurrent demyelinating diseases, such as multiphasic neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) without aquaporin-4 (AQP4) abs or multiphasic ADEM (MDEM), but rarely in children who subsequently develop multiple sclerosis (MS). The presence of MOG-abs is age dependent with the highest seropositivity rates found in young children and an episode of ADEM, whereas older children with MOG-abs present with ON, myelitis, or brainstem symptoms. MOG-abs, initially thought to be associated with a benign disease course, are found in a substantial proportion of children with relapsing episodes associated with high and persisting MOG-ab titers. This review describes, in particular, the increasing spectrum of phenotypes associated with MOG-abs with a focus on clinical characteristics, radiological features, and therapeutic aspects.
Mariotto S, Ferrari S, Monaco S, Benedetti MD, Schanda K, Alberti D, Farinazzo A, Capra R, Mancinelli C, De Rossi N, Bombardi R, Zuliani L, Zoccarato M, Tanel R, Bonora A, Turatti M, Calabrese M, Polo A, Pavone A, Grazian L, Sechi G, Sechi E, Urso D, Delogu R, Janes F, Deotto L, Cadaldini M, Bianchi MR, Cantalupo G, Reindl M, Gajofatto A. Clinical spectrum and IgG subclass analysis of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated syndromes: a multicenter study. J Neurol. 2017 Dec;264(12):2420-2430.
Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) recently emerged as a potential biomarker in patients with inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. We here compare the clinical and laboratory findings observed in a cohort of MOG-Ab seropositive and seronegative cases and describe IgG subclass analysis results. Consecutive serum samples referred to Verona University Neuropathology Laboratory for aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-Ab and/or MOG-Ab testing were analysed between March 2014 and May 2017. The presence of AQP4-Ab was determined using a cell-based assay. A live cell immunofluorescence assay was used for the detection of MOG-IgG and IgG subclass analysis. Among 454 analysed samples, 29 were excluded due to AQP4-Ab positivity or to the final demonstration of a disorder not compatible with MOG-Ab. We obtained clinical data in 154 out of 425 cases. Of these, 22 subjects resulted MOG-Ab positive. MOG-Ab positive patients were mainly characterised by the involvement of the optic nerve and/or spinal cord. Half of the cases presented relapses and the recovery was usually partial. Brain MRI was heterogeneous while short lesions were the prevalent observation on spinal cord MRI. MOG-Ab titre usually decreased in non-relapsing cases. In all MOG-IgG positive cases, we observed IgG1 antibodies, which were predominant in most subjects. IgG2 (5/22), IgG3 (9/22) and IgG4 (3/22) antibodies were also detectable. We confirm that MOG-Ab-related syndromes have distinct features in the spectrum of demyelinating conditions, and we describe the possible role of the different IgG subclasses in this condition.
Baumann M, Grams A, Djurdjevic T, Wendel EM, Lechner C, Behring B, Blaschek A, Diepold K, Eisenkölbl A, Fluss J, Karenfort M, Koch J, Konuşkan B, Leiz S, Merkenschlager A, Pohl D, Schimmel M, Thiels C, Kornek B, Schanda K, Reindl M, Rostásy K. MRI of the first event in pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes with antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. J Neurol. 2018 Apr;265(4):845-855.
Antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-Ab) can be detected in various pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS). Here, we analyze the spectrum of neuroradiologic findings in children with MOG-Ab and a first demyelinating event. The cerebral and spinal MRI of 69 children with different ADS was assessed in regard to the distribution and characteristics of lesions. Children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 36) or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (n = 5) presented an imaging pattern characterized predominantly by poorly demarcated lesions with a wide supra- and infratentorial distribution. Younger children also tended to have poorly defined and widespread lesions. The majority of patients with an isolated optic neuritis (n = 16) only presented small non-specific brain lesions or none at all. A longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis mainly affecting the cervical, and less often so the thoracic, lumbar, and conus regions, was detected in 31 children. The three children of our cohort who were then finally diagnosed with multiple sclerosis had at onset already demarcated white matter lesions as well as transverse myelitis. In conclusion, children with MOG seropositive ADS present disparate, yet characteristic imaging patterns. These patterns have been seen to correlate to the disease entity as well as to age of symptom onset.