Mariana Braatz Krueger, Samir Câmara Magalhães, André Pessoa, Clarissa Bueno, Marcelo Rodrigues Masruha and Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto. Electrical status epilepticus during sleep in patients with congenital Zika virus syndrome: An unprecedented clinical finding. Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy. (in press)
Brazil experienced a disproportionately higher rate of microcephaly cases in November 2015 with evidence of a causal link with Zika virus (ZIKV) infections during pregnancy. Epilepsy is a major neurological feature seen as part of congenital Zika virus syndrome (CZVS). Different seizure types and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities have been described in association with this syndrome. However, clinical and neurophysiological features of epilepsy seen in children with CZVS are not fully understood.
We evaluated children with CZVS showing an EEG pattern of electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESES). Information on gender, age of onset of seizures, head circumference at birth, gross motor function at the time of diagnosis, of clinical and EEG aspects of seizures, EEG features and response to drug treatment was assessed.
Our case series included four patients. They were diagnosed with epilepsy between one month to 18 months of age and showed an ESES pattern at the age of three. They presented with a wide range of epileptic symptoms, but all experienced tonic seizures. Multiple drug treatment was the management approach for three patients; however, they showed poor response to treatment with conventional drugs used in the treatment of ESES.
Children with CZVS may develop an EEG pattern of ESES. Clinicians and neurologists should be aware of this neurological presentation to improve the management of these patients.