[I only post this one because of the author list. Perhaps everyone is responsible for a few words.]
Sundermann, Erin E. PhD; Maki, Pauline M. PhD; Rubin, Leah H. PhD; Lipton, Richard B. MD; Landau, Susan PhD; Biegon, Anat PhD; For the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative; Weiner, Michael MD; Aisen, Paul MD; Weiner, Michael MD; Aisen, Paul MD; Petersen, Ronald MD, PhD; Jack, Clifford R. Jr MD; Jagust, William MD; Trojanowki, John Q. MD, PhD; Toga, Arthur W. PhD; Beckett, Laurel PhD; Green, Robert C. MD, MPH; Saykin, Andrew J. PsyD; Morris, John MD; Liu, Enchi PhD; Green, Robert C. MD, MPH; Montine, Tom MD, PhD; Petersen, Ronald MD, PhD; Aisen, Paul MD; Gamst, Anthony PhD; Thomas, Ronald G. PhD; Donohue, Michael PhD; Walter, Sarah MSc; Gessert, Devon; Sather, Tamie; Beckett, Laurel PhD; Core PI,; Harvey, Danielle PhD; Gamst, Anthony PhD; Donohue, Michael PhD; Kornak, John PhD; Jack, Clifford R. Jr MD; Dale, Anders PhD; Bernstein, Matthew PhD; Felmlee, Joel PhD; Fox, Nick MD; Thompson, Paul PhD; Schuff, Norbert PhD; Alexander, Gene PhD; DeCarli, Charles MD; Jagust, William MD; Bandy, Dan MS, CNMT; Koeppe, Robert A. PhD; Foster, Norm MD; Reiman, Eric M. MD; Chen, Kewei PhD; Mathis, Chet MD; Morris, John MD; Cairns, Nigel J. PhD; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa BA, HTL; Trojanowki, J.Q. MD, PhD; Shaw, Les PhD; Lee, Virginia M.Y. PhD, MBA; Korecka, Magdalena PhD; Toga, Arthur W. PhD; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott PhD; Saykin, Andrew J. PsyD; Foroud, Tatiana M. PhD; Potkin, Steven MD; Shen, Li PhD; Kachaturian, Zaven PhD; Frank, Richard MD, PhD; Snyder, Peter J. PhD; Molchan, Susan PhD; Kaye, Jeffrey MD; Quinn, Joseph MD; Lind, Betty BS; Dolen, Sara BS; Schneider, Lon S. MD; Pawluczyk, Sonia MD; Spann, Bryan M. DO, PhD; Brewer, James MD, PhD; Vanderswag, Helen RN; Heidebrink, Judith L. MD, MS; Lord, Joanne L. LPN, BA, CCRC; Petersen, Ronald MD, PhD; Johnson, Kris RN; Doody, Rachelle S. MD, PhD; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier MD; Chowdhury, Munir MBBS, MS; Stern, Yaakov PhD; Honig, Lawrence S. MD, PhD; Bell, Karen L. MD; Morris, John C. MD; Ances, Beau MD; Carroll, Maria RN, MSN; Leon, Sue RN, MSN; Mintun, Mark A. MD; Schneider, Stacy APRN, BC, GNP; Marson, Daniel JD, PhD; Griffith, Randall PhD, ABPP; Clark, David MD; Grossman, Hillel MD; Mitsis, Effie PhD; Romirowsky, Aliza BA; Leyla deToledo-Morrell, PhD; Shah, Raj C. MD; Duara, Ranjan MD; Varon, Daniel MD; Roberts, Peggy CNA; Albert, Marilyn PhD; Onyike, Chiadi MD, MHS; Kielb, Stephanie MD; Rusinek, Henry PhD; de Leon, Mony J EdD; Glodzik, Lidia MD, PhD; De Santi, Susan PhD; Doraiswamy, P. Murali MD; Petrella, Jeffrey R. MD; Coleman, R. Edward MD; Arnold, Steven E. MD; Karlawish, Jason H. MD; Wolk, David MD; Smith, Charles D. MD; Jicha, Greg MD; Hardy, Peter PhD; Lopez, Oscar L. MD; Oakley, MaryAnn MA; Simpson, Donna M. CRNP, MPH; Porsteinsson, Anton P. MD; Goldstein, Bonnie S. MS, NP; Martin, Kim RN; Makino, Kelly M. BS; Ismail, M. Saleem MD; Brand, Connie RN; Mulnard, Ruth A. DNSc, RN, FAAN; Thai, Gaby MD; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine MSN, RN, A/GNP; Womack, Kyle MD; Mathews, Dana MD, PhD; Quiceno, Mary MD; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon MD, PhD; King, Richard MD; Weiner, Myron MD; Martin-Cook, Kristen MA; DeVous, Michael PhD; Levey, Allan I. MD, PhD; Lah, James J. MD, PhD; Cellar, Janet S. DNP, PMHCNS-BC; Burns, Jeffrey M. MD; Anderson, Heather S. MD; Swerdlow, Russell H. MD; Apostolova, Liana MD; Lu, Po H. PsyD; Bartzokis, George MD; Silverman, Daniel H.S. MD, PhD; Graff-Radford, Neill R MBBCH FRCP; Parfitt, Francine MSH, CCRC; Johnson, Heather MLS, CCRP; Farlow, Martin R. MD; Hake, Ann Marie MD; Matthews, Brandy R. MD; Herring, Scott RN; van Dyck, Christopher H. MD; Carson, Richard E. PhD; MacAvoy, Martha G. PhD; Chertkow, Howard MD; Bergman, Howard MD; Hosein, Chris MEd; Black, Sandra MD, FRCPC; Stefanovic, Bojana PhD; Caldwell, Curtis PhD; Robin Hsiung, Ging-Yuek MD, MHSc, FRCPC; Feldman, Howard MD, FRCPC; Mudge, Benita BS; Assaly, Michele MA; Kertesz, Andrew MD; Rogers, John MD; Trost, Dick PhD; Bernick, Charles MD; Munic, Donna PhD; Kerwin, Diana MD; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel MD; Lipowski, Kristina BA; Wu, Chuang-Kuo MD, PhD; Johnson, Nancy PhD; Sadowsky, Carl MD; Martinez, Walter MD; Villena, Teresa MD; Turner, Raymond Scott MD, PhD; Johnson, Kathleen NP; Reynolds, Brigid NP; Sperling, Reisa A. MD; Johnson, Keith A. MD; Marshall, Gad MD; Frey, Meghan; Yesavage, Jerome MD; Taylor, Joy L. PhD; Lane, Barton MD; Rosen, Allyson PhD; Tinklenberg, Jared MD; Sabbagh, Marwan MD, FAAN, CCRI; Belden, Christine PsyD; Jacobson, Sandra MD; Kowall, Neil MD; Killiany, Ronald PhD; Budson, Andrew E. MD; Norbash, Alexander MD; Johnson, Patricia Lynn BA; Obisesan, Thomas O. MD, MPH; Wolday, Saba MSc; Bwayo, Salome K. PharmD; Lerner, Alan MD; Hudson, Leon MPH; Ogrocki, Paula PhD; Fletcher, Evan PhD; Carmichael, Owen PhD; Olichney, John MD; DeCarli, Charles MD; Kittur, Smita MD; Borrie, Michael MB ChB; Lee, T-Y PhD; Bartha, Dr Rob PhD; Johnson, Sterling PhD; Asthana, Sanjay MD; Carlsson, Cynthia M. MD; Potkin, Steven G. MD; Preda, Adrian MD; Nguyen, Dana PhD; Tariot, Pierre MD; Fleisher, Adam MD; Reeder, Stephanie BA; Bates, Vernice MD; Capote, Horacio MD; Rainka, Michelle PharmD, CCRP; Scharre, Douglas W. MD; Kataki, Maria MD, PhD; Zimmerman, Earl A. MD; Celmins, Dzintra MD; Brown, Alice D. FNP; Pearlson, Godfrey D. MD; Blank, Karen MD; Anderson, Karen RN; Saykin, Andrew J. PsyD; Santulli, Robert B. MD; Schwartz, Eben S. PhD; Sink, Kaycee M. MD, MAS; Williamson, Jeff D. MD, MHS; Garg, Pradeep PhD; Watkins, Franklin MD; Ott, Brian R. MD; Querfurth, Henry MD; Tremont, Geoffrey PhD; Salloway, Stephen MD, MS; Malloy, Paul PhD; Correia, Stephen PhD; Rosen, Howard J. MD; Miller, Bruce L. MD; Mintzer, Jacobo MD, MBA; Longmire, Crystal Flynn PhD; Spicer, Kenneth MD, PhD; Finger, Elizabether MD; Rachinsky, Irina MD; Rogers, John MD; Kertesz, Andrew MD; Drost, Dick MD; Pomara, Nunzio MD; Hernando, Raymundo MD; Sarrael, Antero MD; Schultz, Susan K. MD; Boles Ponto, Laura L. PhD; Shim, Hyungsub MD; Smith, Karen Elizabeth RN; Relkin, Norman MD, PhD; Chaing, Gloria MD; Raudin, Lisa PhD; Smith, Amanda MD; Fargher, Kristin MD; Raj, Balebail Ashok MD Female advantage in verbal memory: Evidence of sex-specific cognitive reserve. Neurology, in press.
Objective: We investigated sex differences in verbal memory across different levels of neural dysfunction, measured by temporal lobe glucose metabolic rates (TLGluMR).
Methods: Three hundred ninety controls and 672 participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 254 with Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative completed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using linear regression to examine the sex by TLGluMR interaction on RAVLT performance in the overall sample and within diagnostic groups adjusting for age, education, and APOE [epsilon]4 genotype.
Results: Across groups, female sex and higher TLGluMR and their interaction were associated with better verbal memory (p values <= 0.005). The female advantage in verbal memory varied by TLGluMR such that the advantage was greatest among individuals with moderate to high TLGluMR and minimal or absent among individuals with lower TLGluMR. Diagnosis-stratified analyses revealed that this interaction was driven by the aMCI group (p values = 0.009). The interaction was not significant in control and AD dementia groups.
Conclusions: Women show better verbal memory than men in aMCI despite similar levels of brain hypometabolism. The lifelong advantage that females show over males in verbal memory might represent a form of cognitive reserve that delays verbal memory decline until more advanced pathology, as indexed by TLGluMR. This issue is clinically important because verbal memory scores are used in diagnosing aMCI and AD dementia.